Have you ever wished that you could go back in time and experience life in a typical Brethren farming community? When life was at a much slower pace, without the vibration of noisy over crowded highways, and the word filth referred to something in a barnyard. Here is at least one opportunity to discover what simple family life was like during the 1840-1850's, in and around the small farming community of Boston, Indiana. For some this will be a chance to discover former ways of more simple living and for others it will be a refreshing trip down memory lane, because of stories that grandparents used to tell. Brethren church historian Merle C. Rummel has graciously permitted several chapters of his book, "Four Mile Community" to be place online, so that people in the modern world may discover what life was like in a more simple time, when people knew almost everyone in town. It was truly a time of sheltered existence for many, a time for cultivating a rich heritage of family experiences when the outside world - was still the outside world.
Written by Merle C. Rummel ~ Published April, 1998 ~ Last Updated, January, 1999 ©
This document may be reproduced, only if remaining intact, with full acknowledgement to the author.
The Journal covers the period from the beginning of Brethren migration in America (about 1730 to 1860) or just before the beginning of those series of world changing events that began with the Civil War and progressed through the settlement of the west and the Industrial Revolution. The Journal gathers the known people and events that directly effected the Frontier Brethren during this period of time based on an annual presentation.
1648 Peace of Westphalia -end of the Thirty Years War; between Ferdinand III (the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor) and Louis XIII, Bourbon King of France (guided by Cardinal Richelieu). Most of the fighting had been done over the fertile Rhine River Valley, the Palatinate, with some Counties ravaged, almost devastated and completely uninhabited. Started as a Religious War (Protestant vs Catholic). 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees -King Philip IV of Spain refused to accept the Peace of Westphalia, and war continued between he and the French (under Cardinal Mazarin). Spain was driven back south of the Pyrenees Mts. (present Spain). 1670 The "collegia pietatis" begin meeting at home of Philipp Jakob Spener. These are small group house meetings for Bible Study and Prayer. They spread across Germany, -eventually, one met in the Mack Mill, at Schriesheim. 1673 French invasion into the Palatinate. 1675 Philipp Jakob Spener wrote "Pia Desideria" (Pious Desires) -a primary work of the Pietist movement. Doegg and Sesquahannock Indians "killed near 200 Christian Persons" near Jamestown VA -started because an Indian took a wild hog home for dinner. The settler who owned the hog, with friends, shot up the Doegg Indian village. It became the cause for the Bacon Rebellion, against laws that protected Indian lands. The Rebellion collapse when Nathaniel Bacon died of dysentery. 1681 William Penn is granted lands in New World: Included Pennsylvania (Penn's Woods), Delaware and parts of New Jersey. Penn set up a "Holy Experiment", in which Pennsylvania became a refuge and sanctuary to persecuted Christians: this began with his own sect, the Quakers, but quickly included the Mennonites and Amish of Germany and Switzerland. The Capital city was Philadelphia (City of Brotherly Love); leaflets were distributed offering land at the price of 2 English pounds for 100 acres. 1683 Creyfeld Mennonites bought land, thirteen families, under Daniel Pastorious began settlement at Germantown, just outside Philadelphia. 1689-1697 King William's War, American part of English defenses against the French King, Louis XIV. French invasion into the Palatinate, with attendant destruction. Indian attacks on the English Colonial Frontier, led by French officers. French ships from Port Royal, Acadia, attack New England shipping. 1692 Salem Witch Trials begin, Massachusetts Colony. 1695 August Hermann Francke (of the University of Halle) begins publications of "Observations biblicae" a newsletter analyzing translation of scriptures from the Greek. He emphasized that each person should carry his own Greek New Testament. Kaskaskia founded on the Mississippi River (Illinois-Spanish) 1699 Publications by Gottfried Arnold: "Portraiture of Primitive Christians" and "Impartial History of the Church and Heretics" were a great influence on the various Pietist groups, including Alexander Mack. Though Pietist, they presented some Anabaptist concepts, hence: Brethren Adult Baptism. Ernest Christoph Hochmann leaves the University of Halle and comes to Wittgenstein, is befriended by Alexander Mack, miller. 1702-1713 Queen Anne's War -War of the Spanish Succession -French and Indians against frontier in New England. British unsuccessful in attempts to capture Quebec and Montreal. Indian massacre of Deerfield, MA (1704). 1707 French invasion of Palatinate. 1708 Alexander Mack leads his bible study fellowship (collegia pietatis) in baptism in the River Eder, Schwarzenau. They had to break the ice in the river. It was early morning. -Winter one of worst in Europe -intense cold started in October and ran to April. Grape vines and Fruit trees were destroyed. Birds even froze in the air. 1711 Queen Maud settles refugees from the Palatinate in the New World. Colonies are established at New Bern NC (devastated by an Indian Massacre that year) and in New York, where Governor Hunter set them to working in the Pine Tar industry (Naval Stores). This is a failure, the some 3000 Palatinates move to the Schoharie Valley, where there is opposition to obtaining farmland, so they move to Pennsylvania, and settle at Reading. 1711-1712 Tuscarora Indian War -Virginia. The Tuscaroras had been selling captive Indians to the whites for slave. When some of their land was appropriated by the colonists, they attacked New Bern NC, the capitol of the colony. The colonists and native tribes defeated the Tuscaroras, and more than 1000 were sold into slavery. The Tuscaroras drifted north to the shores of Lake Erie and joined the Iroquois Confederacy. 1712 Canstein Bible Institute (Univ. of Halle, pietist) begins printing of Bibles. 1714 Mennonites begin settlement of Lancaster Co, Pennsylvania. 1715 Refuge of the Brethren (from Marienborn and Epstein) to Creyfeld (county of Cleves, Prussia) Mennonite settlement, industrial city. Brethren called "Dompelaers" (Baptizers). 1717 Baptism by the Brethren at Creyfeld of 6 Reformed Church members. These six were imprisoned at Duesseldorf, for 4 years, at hard labor. 1719 Peter Becker, Brethren minister, and forty families from Creyfeld move to Germantown in Pennsylvania. Some few stayed in Germantown, others moved to the "back country" (Berks and Lancaster Counties). 1720 Count Henry of Wittgenstein died. Religious freedom was removed and the Brethren at Schwarzenau underwent severe persecution. They moved en mass to Surhuisterween in West Friesland, Holland. Conrad Beissel (radical pietist) comes to Germantown. A skilled baker, he apprentices to Peter Becker to learn the Weaving Trade. 1722 Refugees of the "Unitas Fratrum" (Hussites) gather at Herrnhut, on the estates of Nicolaus Ludwig, Count Zinzendorf. They form a Pietistic conclave. This is the start of the Moravian Brethren, who expand the Pietist tradition of Christian Missionaries -to the world. They form colonies in America (Bethlehem and Nazareth PA, Salem NC, etc) and missions to the Indians (New Philadelphia, Gnaddenhutten, Schoenbrun Village -in Ohio, among others). Peter Becker with two Brethren visit the scattered Brethren in Berks and Lancaster Counties. 1723 Rumor spreads that European Brethren leader, Christian Libe was coming to America. Brethren from the interior came to Germantown to meet him. The rumor was false, but the Germantown Brethren met with them at Peter Becker's house. This can be called the beginning of the Brethren Church in America. Peter Becker baptizes 6 persons from the Coventry, on Christmas Day, in Wissahickon Creek. 1724 "Great Missionary Tour" the Brethren from Germantown visit the scattered Brethren in the Interior: Indian Creek, Falckner's Swamp, Oley; Conrad Beissel baptized by Peter Becker Coventry Church (Chester County), Martin Urner, minister Conestoga Church (Lancaster County) Conrad Beissel, minister 1726 Brethren at Berleburg, Germany, begin printing Bibles. 1728 First Quaker and Brethren Settlers west of Susquehanna River (York County, PA). Falkners Swamp Church (Berks County, PA) Andreas Frey, elder (eventually won by Zinzendorf to Moravian cause of Church Union). Monocacy Trail (Indian) [later made official -Michael Danner commissioner --from Susquehanna River (at Wrightstown) south by Marsh Creek, along Monocacy, to Frederick, Maryland. Conrad Beissel forms solitary community on the Conestoga 1729 Alexander Mack leads migration of Brethren from Friesland to Germantown. (Ship "Allen", embarked: 7 July 1729, landed: 15 Sept 1729; 55 families). 1732 Conrad Beissel forms beginning of the "Ephrata Cloisters": a Radical Pietist, Sabbatarian (7th Day Sabbath), based on the "solitary life", celibacy (ideal -marriage as bride to Jesus). Oley Church (Berks County) Martin Gaby minister. Major Flu Epidemic -came in from Europe. 1733 Great Swamp Church (Bucks County) Abraham Duboy, minister Amwell Church (Hunterdon County NJ) --John Naas, John Bechtelsheimmer; became the first Brethren church to use English. 1734 Jonathan Edwards' Revival begins: The Great Awakening "Sinner, in the hands of an Angry God" (Massachusetts, highly emotional -swept the colonies). 1735 Alexander Mack dies, Germantown PA Jacob and John Funk purchase land near Strassburg Viriginia, in the Valley, single Brethren of the Ephrata Community, this becomes a way point to the Brethren as they move south. 1736 White Oak Church (Lancaster County) Michael Fautz, minister Michael Danner imprisoned at Baltimore by Thomas Cresaps, over border disputed homesteads (Maryland/Pennsylvania). 1738 Exodus of many Germantown Brethren to Ephrata, Beissel Community, including Alexander Mack Jr, called Bro Timotheus. Little Conewago Church (York County), Daniel Leatherman, minister. Christopher Sower receives Printing Press, from Brethren of Berleburg, Germany. Becomes foremost printer in the Colonies, rivaling even Benjamin Franklin. 1739 George Adam Martin ordained to ministry at Coventry, by Peter Becker. Wesley Revival begins in England. John Wesley, returned from Hernhutt (Moravians), begins a Pietist movement in England -a Method of Christianity (Methodism). 1740-1748 King George's War -American name for British part in the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748), ended by treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Indian raids on the Frontier (New England to Virginia). 1741 Conewago Church (York/Adams County), George Adam Martin, minister. He is influenced by Conrad Beissel, and withdraws to Ephrata, taking 60 members with him. Excommunicated. Count Zinzendorf comes to Bethlehem PA --holds synods, to unite the German Christians; the Brethren attend the 3rd Synod, at Oley (Feb 1742). John Naas dies, Amwell NJ 1742 Migration to the Conococheague, Maryland, from Oley, Berks County, PA. First Brethren Settlers to the Monocacy, Frederick County, MD George Adam Martin calls for a Brethren Great Assembly, to counter the snares of the Moravians. Martin Urner was the Presiding Elder of this first Annual Meeting. Pentecost was the time of the Assembly. 1743 Christopher Sauer publishes first Bible in America, German Conococheague Church (Washington County, MD) Nicholas Martin, minister. 1744 Brudersthal, first Brethren families to Brothers Valley (Somerset County, PA). 1745 Dunkards Bottom (Montgomery County, VA) on New River, called "Mahanaim"; Alexander Mack Jr, Isreal and Samuel Eckerlin - break from Ephrata Cloisters, flee "towards the Setting of the Sun" -7th Day settlement. Capture of Fort Louisbourg, Cape Breton Isle -by Col. Wm. Pepperell of New Hampshire with New England militia. Returned to France. 1747 Elder Michael Frantz dies, Conestoga Church, Cocalico Peter Becker dies, Skippack. Isreal Creek Church (Frederick County, MD) Jacob Danner, minister Measles Epidemic. 1748 Beaver Creek Church (Newberry Co, So Carolina) David Martin, min; congregation moved mostly from the Conococheague, MD. Migration was down the Great Valley Road, and at the Roanoke River, the Carolina Road left through the gap and followed the face of the Blue Ridge down to the Yadkin and on. Northkill Congregation (Berks County) George Kleine, minister Alexander Mack Jr left Dunkards Bottom, (prophetic) dream of Indian Raid. Alexander Mack Jr (Sander Mack), and Christopher Sauer Jr are given oversight of the Germantown Church (Gemeinschaft) (advanced to Eldership "on trial"). 1750 Christopher Gist, Surveyor for the Ohio Company, to Northwest Territory. 1751 Pipe Creek Church (Carroll County, MD), Michael Urner, minister Monongahela Church (West Virginia), Eckerlins left Dunker Bottom, New River go to Monongahela River area, on WV/PA border. Indians take them captive. 1752 Upper Antietam Church (Franklin County, PA), Abraham Stouffer, William Stover, ministers. Shenandoah Church (near Strassburg Va) Christopher Guss, minister; This church seems to grow in the area near the Funk settlement of 1735. 1753 Col George Washington, with 400 soldiers, arrived to build fort at the forks of the Ohio. French imprisoned, built Fort Duquesne. Alexander Mack Jr and Christopher Sauer are ordained Elders 1754 Broad River Church (Fairfield County, So Carolina) a mixed group of Brethren, some holding to the Ephrata 7th Day Sabboth. 24 families moved south from Concocheague and French Creek. 1754-1763 French and Indian War, American name for the Seven Years War, which resulted in the defeat of the French on the North American Continent. Essential a contest for the Ohio Valley -French Forts were built from Western Pennsylvania to the Mouth of the Mississippi: Fort Niagara (Youngstown NY); Fort Presqu'Isle (Eire PA); Fort Le Boeuf (Waterford PA); Fort Venango (Franklin PA); Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg PA); Fort Detroit (Detroit MI); Fort Vincennes (Vincennes IN); Fort Miami (Fort Wayne IN); Fort St Joseph (St Joseph MI); Fort Chartres and Fort Kaskaskia (near Chester IL, on the Mississippi River) The French loosed their Indian Allies against the English settlements all along the Frontier. There were many Brethren massacred. Many Brethren were driven from their Frontier homes. There are stories from this time of Heroism, and of the Faith. 1755 General Braddock began major campaign against French at Fort Duquesne, to be followed with action against Crown Point (Lake Champlaign) and Fort Niagara. His Royal Army, with colonial militia, including George Washington, marched through Frederick County, MD to Ft Frederick, Cumberland MD, where an army road was cut into the wilderness going toward Ft Duquesne (now US 40). French General Jumonville, with regulars and Indian allies, defeated the British Army and killed General Braddock. George Washington saved the remnants of the British Army at Fort Necessity. First colony of Brethren settle in southern portion of Morrison's Cove (PA). Drapers Meadows Massacre: Shawnee Indians kill Col James Preston and massacre his settlement at Drapers Meadows, on the New River, take Mary Ingles captive to Kentucky (Ingles Ferry), but do not find Philip Lybrook, frontier scout. Martin Urner Sr. dies, Coventry Church, Pottstown PA. 1756 Great Swatara Church (Dauphin County) Michael Fautz, George Miller; division of the White Oak/Conestoga Congregations. Middletown Valley (Frederick County, Maryland), Daniel Leatherman, minister -Morgan Edwards says that he was Bishop for all of Maryland. He lived at Garfield, or "Gravel Hill", on the Blue Ridge. 1757 Little Swatara Church (Berks County) Peter Heckman, minister; Tulpehocken. Hollmanns Creek Church (Rockingham County, Va) Joseph Chiefly, minister; this church was the predecessor to the Flat Rock Church. 1758 Peter Becker dies, at home of daughter Mary Harley, Skippack on Indian Creek. Christopher Sauer Sr. dies, at Germantown PA Codorus Church (York County), Jacob Danner, minister Bermudian Church (Adams County) Peter Miller minister, composed of the 60 families who followed George Adam Martin out of the Conestoga Church; 7th Day Baptist. Fort Duquesne abandoned by French, on approach of General Forbes, renamed Fort Pitt. Forbes Army Road (now US30) went through Bedford PA, Ligonier PA, Greensburg PA. Opened passage to the west for many Brethren. 1759 Ten Mile Creek Church (Washington County PA) Bro. Helft, Elder. Beaver Creek Church (Craven County, SC) David Martin, minister Seige of Quebec -Generals Wolfe (British) and Montcalm (French) both killed in the battle, British Victory, Quebec surrendered, end of French Canada. Measles Epidemic. 1760 Georges Creek Church (Fayette County PA) Eckerlins Cacapon Church (Virginia). Madison County Church (Virginia) John Tanner, minister; active evangelism drew the ire of the Church of England, John Tanner was fined. 1761 Flu Epidemic. 1762 Stony Creek Church (Somerset County, PA Brothers Valley) Isreal Creek Church (Frederick County, MD), Jacob Danner, minister Indian raid on Brethren in Morrisons Cove, John Martin family taken captive. George Adam Martin moves to Antietam Creek, Washington Co Maryland. He brings his Sabbatarian and Radical Pietist faith, causing division. Yadkin Congregation (Crane Creek, Salisbury NC) Conrad Kerns, minister. Measles Epidemic. 1763 Peace of Paris -Great Britain obtains St Laurence River Valley, Ohio Valley (all land east of the Mississippi). Jacob Danner moves to Isreal Creek (Frederick County, MD). 1763-1764 Pontiac's War -Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa, determines to drive all white men from Indian Country. Only Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt stand against him. Indian massacres sweep the frontier. Many Brethren are killed. 1764 Elder George Adam Martin moves to Brothers Valley, with group of settlers (includes Jacob Miller, minister). Elder Martin is a Brethren Radical Pietist, tending toward the Ephrata Sabbatarians, which brings division in the Stoney Creek Church. Ewarry Congregation (Randolph County, NC) Jacob Stutzman, minister Sugar Act -taxation by Prime Minister Grenville, of Great Britain. 1766 Elder Jacob Miller returns to Monocacy from Stoney Creek, Brothers Valley. 1767 Catawba Congregation (North Carolina) Christopher Guis, minister. Ft Redstone Meeting (PA) -between the Indians and the White Settlers, over encroachment into Indian lands, present are Brethren from Brothers Valley. Stamp Act -further taxation; resulted in the patriotic "Sons of Liberty" and the Stamp Act Congress, at New York City. The Brethren could basically ignore the riotousness, but were harassed by those who were being patriotic. 1768 Conrad Beissel dies, Peter Miller succeeds to the office of Superintendent at Ephrata Cloisters. John and Martin Garber move to Beaver Dam (Frederick County, MD) Clouds Creek Church (Berkeley County, SC) James Warren, exhorter. 1769 Elder Michael Pfautz died, White Oak Church, Lancaster County, PA probable start of Beaver Dam Church (Frederick County, MD) John Garber, minister. Survey of the Mason-Dixon Line, separating Pennsylvania and Maryland. Daniel Boone's first trip to Kaintuck. 1770 The Boston Massacre: soldiers fire on a rioting crowd, killing five. This stirs up flames of rebellion through most the colonies, and brings further harassment of the pacifist Brethren. Many Brethren move to the frontier. Edesto Church (Berkeley County, SC) Elijah Patchet, preacher. 1771 Beaver Run Church (Mineral County, WV) on the South Branch of the Potomac. 1772 Fraternity Church (Winston Salem NC) Jacob Faw, minister Edisto Church (?Orangeburg County, SC) Elijah Pachet, minister South Branch Church (Grant County, WV) Martin Power, minister -in 1785 this church is the center of a dispute over pacificism, Valentine Powers is Banned. Measles Epidemic 1773 Elder Jacob Miller moves to Franklin County VA, on the Blue Ridge. Boston Tea Party -while the German Brethren had little to do with tea, the continuing fervor and excitement of opposition to the King, and even considered rebellion, continued the harassment on the Pacifist Churches. 1775 Elder John Garber moves to the Flat Rock Church, Rockingham County, VA; This period evinces considerable migration away from the central Maryland/Pennsylvania area --probably due to the swearing of oaths of Loyalty, and the pressure of the conflict against England. Worst flu epidemic ever known - many die. 1775-1789 American Revolution: The Brethren read the Bible to say that they should support the King, as legal ruler of the land. Many felt a personal gratitude to the King, for providing them a refuge from the horrors of the destruction of war in Germany. They also believed in pacifism, not fighting, due to their background in Germany. The result was persecution, which had a long lasting effect on the church, and changed the pattern of church life. While many youth scumbled to the pressures of their peers, and joined the local Militia, and even the Continental Line, most of the Brethren refused to be part of the military action. Instead, as battles were fought locally, they did medical and humanitarian work. Many sold food to Armies in the locale (some major Brethren leaders are accredited DAR recognition for this). 1777 Indian Massacre in Morrison's Cove. The Brethren are pacifists, and have consistently refused to be part of the local militia defenses. They died bravely, saying: God's Will be Done -"Gottes Wille sei gethan". Years later elderly Indians asked concerning the "Gotwiltahns". Battle of Brandywine; Battle of Germantown; British Army from New York, under General Howe, takes Philadelphia British invasion from Canada: General Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga; Col St Leger wins at Oriskany, defeated at Ft Stanwix. 1778 Christopher Sauer's Press confiscated by Revolution. Christopher Sauer dies in bankrupcy. The Revolutionary Cavalry stable their horses in his press room (Battle of Germantown) and pages of the Sauer Bible show horseshoe prints -immediate result was the change in the Brethren Church, from one of education and leadership, to withdrawal and retirement from society. Annual Meeting speaks against "taking the attest", a paper of citizenship, from the American Revolutionary Committees (the refusal of the attest brings severe persecution). Annual Meeting declares against distilling hard liquor (whiskey) (the concept of temperate living means not drinking in excess -wines, ciders, beers are acceptable, and used) Dutchmans Creek Church (Davie County, NC) Gasper Rowland, minister. 1779 Annual Meeting says that the Brethren have given their allegiance to God, and to whomever He places over us. Thus we cannot repudiate the King (of England) in an attest. 1780 Annual Meeting declares that the Brethren should not pay substitute money (for a substitute to be a replacement in the militia or army), for self or for sons. 1781 Battle of Yorktown, Decisive Concluding Battle of Revolutionary War. 1782 Pennsylvania Militia massacre Moravian Christian Indians (Delawares), at Schoenbrunn and Gnaddenhutten (Tuscaras River, Ohio). These had been true to the Colonial Americans during the Indian wars of the Revolution. British force mission Indians to move near fort of Detroit. (Conner family escaped massacre, forced to move.) John Toney builds first brick house west of the Mountains, along the New River, Giles County, VA; brothers live nearby. Annual Meeting declares against slavery. 1782-1787 Wyoming Valley -Pennsylvania; Indian attacks along the frontier, especially on this settlement so close the Iroquois lands. 1783 Tates Creek Church (Madison County, KY) George Boone, Squire Boone, ministers -near Boone's Station (near Lexington KY); settlement from Carolinas, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Revolutionary War ends, Treaty of Paris. Annual Meeting speaks against the Distilling of Whiskey. This is hurtful to the frontier farmers, who have no other way to make profit from an excess of corn (too distant from eastern coastal city markets). It is ignored by western Pennsylvania Brethren. 1784 Cincinnatus (Fort Washington) Ohio Territory. Toney family makes first summer excursion into the Mountains of the New River, gathering 'Sang (Ginseng), Great Kanawah Valley (near Beckley WV) This is one of the early groups moving down the Shawnee War Path, Kanawha Trace, toward the Ohio River, southern Virginia. Elder Christopher Sower Jr. dies, Germantown, Pennsylvania. 1785 The Madison County, VA church moved to Kentucky, on the banks of the Ohio River, Bullitsburg, Boone Co/John Tanner, minister Miller and Moyer families to Penns Valley (Northumberland Co/now Centre County, PA). Henry Rhoads leads migration from Brothers Valley to Muhlenberg County, KY. Brethren services meet in his log house. 1786 Shay's Rebellion -Massachusetts farmers rebel against the Boston Merchant control of the state, especially tax favoritism. The rebellion collapsed. 1787 Constitutional Convention, met in Philadelphia, established a form of government. Northwest Ordinance ratified, established settlement north of the Ohio River, as free -no slavery. John Fitch ran a Steamboat out of Philadelphia --more attraction, than practical. Elder George Wolfe Sr moved from Lancaster County, to the Monongahela River at old Fort Redstone (Brownsville), and started a flatboat building business: Wolfe and Sons. 1788 US Constitution ratified, July 4th the Ohio Company establishes Marietta, on the Ohio River. 1789 Aukerman family arrives Little Miami, OH. George Washington inaugurated President of the new United States of America. France explodes in Revolution; it goes much farther in Radicalism than America even dreamed. 1790 Hinkston Creek Church (Montgomery County, KY) Peter Hahn, Daniel Ockerman, Joseph Molar, John Garver -ministers; largest KY Church, settlement from Carolinas. Beech Creek Church (Shelby County, KY) Jacob Stutzman, George Boone, ministers: settlement from Carolinas and Maryland, near the Falls, Louisville: Elk Creek Church (Spencer County, KY). Drakes Creek Church (Warren County, KY) John Hendricks, elder; settlement from Carolinas, Brethren Universalist (may be "John H.." of 1798 AM bann). Dutch Settlement (Muhlenberg County, KY) Francis Stump, elder; George Wolfe, minister; settlement from Pennsylvania (Henry Rhoads -Brother's Valley). Stephen Bolender/Christian Waltsmith, ministers -to Penns Valley, PA. David Colglazier comes to the mouth of Indian Creek (Clermont County, OH). John Bowman family comes to Obannon Creek (Warren County, OH) Elder Daniel Leatherman died (MD). General Josiah Harmer leads frontier army to disaster near Fort Wayne; Miami Indian Confederation under Little Turtle . 1791 John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church, dies. US Constitution, Bill of Rights -ratified. The army of General Arthur St. Clair was severely defeated by the Miami Indians at Fort Recovery, OH. 1793 King Louis XVI of France, and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were beheaded by the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror followed, with most of the noble families and political rivals being killed. Popular America favored the Revolutionaries --an alarmed Britain began to increase it Navy, at the expense of sailors from American ships. There was raising protest against the British Impressment, although England could be justified, that to some extent their sailors often "jumped ship" to American vessels. American ships were seized. Very high flooding on the Ohio River. Yellow Fever Epidemic in Pennsylvania - many deaths. Elder John Countryman moves from Rockingham County, VA to Kentucky. 1794 General Anthony Wayne was given command of the Northwest Territory following the defeat of General St. Clair. A huge army was gathered at Ft Washington, based around a contingent of the Continental Line. The army moved north to Ft. Greenville, which had been built as its headquarters, then to the new stockade built at the site of General St Clair's defeat, Ft. Recovery. It continued North to the Auglaize River and its junction with the Maumee River. Ft Defiance was built there. Following the Maumee brought it to the primary villages of the Ohio Indian Tribes. Villages and crops were destroyed. The Indians used a breastwork of dead timber left by a tornado as they fought General Wayne's Army (Battle of Fallen Timbers). The army went to bayonets and charged into the morass. Some of the settler cavalry found a passage past the ruins next to the river and as the Indians were driven out of the timber they were taken by the cavalry. It was a major Indian defeat. The loss of their food supplies for the coming winter ended the conflict. Shawnee Indians massacre the Toney family 'Sang camp on the Coal River, in now Boone County, WV. Delaware Indians, including remnants of Moravian Christian Indians of Gnadenhutten, Salem and Schoenbrunn, settle on White River in Indiana. Whiskey Rebellion -Western Pennsylvania farmers rebel on the payment of taxes on the whiskey they make. Liquid Corn is far easier to move and sell, than in its natural state. General Washington leads an army against a group of the rebels, they flee. The Brethren of Brothers Valley and Washington County, are part of the rebellion. Annual Meeting speaks against the "Univeralist" beliefs in the Carolinas -David Martin, John Hendricks (this is just a little more radical in belief, than the prevalent "Restitution" beliefs of the Pietist Brethren.) Yellow Fever epidemic continues in Pennsylvania. 1795 Obannon Church (Clermont County, OH) Frederick Weaver, minister; founded by Elder David Stouder (?Stover of Limestone KY). Elder George Wolfe Sr from Brownsville PA to Logan County, KY Elder Christian Hostetler from Meyersdale PA to Mt Eden, Shelby County, KY, builds a Brethren church building. Daniel Clingensmith leaves Lancaster County, PA for Whitewater Creek in MO. In a great Conference at Ft. Greenville, a treaty was signed surrendering a large portion of Ohio Territory to white settlement. A line was drawn from Ft. Recovery eastward to the Ohio River to Ft Henry (Wheeling), and another drawn southward to the Ohio River from there. The line drawn southward, did not go directly south, but angled slightly westward to where the mouth of the Kentucky River is on the Ohio (near Madison, IN now). In this area, the Indian could live and hunt, but the white man was allowed to settle and build his farms without fear of Indian attack. Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin; a method of removing seeds from raw cotton. This multiplies the quantity of cotton that can be process, hence raised, and results in a booming slave market in the Plantation South. 1796 Christian Waldsmith, minister, founds New Germany, Little Miami R OH. He is identified as a Pietist, with Brethren connections. His father was Reformed Minister at Tulpehocken and Cocalico. Yellow Fever epidemic hits Pennsylvania again. 1797 Conemaugh Congregation (Cambria County, PA) Peter Morgan, elder Yellow Fever epidemic continues. 1798 Delaware Indians invite Shawnees, includes Tecumsah, to settle on White River (remain until 1805), probably Anderson's Town. Daniel Leatherman died, Frederick County, MD. Yellow Fever epidemic continues --one of worst. Minister John Tanner, moves to New Madrid MO. Annual Meeting puts "John H." of Carolina on the ban: due to his radical teachings on Restitutionism and Universalism (John Hendricks -for some reason they do not mention David Martin - but do include "all that are in union with him"). The churches of the Carolinas are lost to the Brethren, during succeeding years. Many Brethren from the Carolinas move to Kentucky. 1799 John Miller and family take land at Wolf Creek on the Great Miami south of the village of Dayton (OH). They later move north of the village. An unidentified Gingrich is there. Gingrich is the Swiss original of the family name corrupted to Kingery. These could be Potter John Miller and Joseph Kingery, children of Elder Jacob Miller, of Franklin Co, Virginia. Martin Urner Jr dies, Coventry Church, Pottstown PA. It was called the Year of the Locust, hordes of locust ate everything that was green. Very bad winter. Three months of a solid layer of snow covered by a layer of ice and sleet. It was so deep that the buffalo (bison) starved and were killed off by the wolves. Buffalo were seldom seen in Ohio afterward. The Ohio State Line was run going straight north from the Great Miami River at the Ohio. This created an area between the Greenville Treaty Line from Ft. Recovery to the Mouth of the Kentucky River and this new Ohio State Line. This is called the Gore. It was the first area of Indiana Territory. 1800 Elder Jacob Miller moved from Franklin County, VA to Bear Creek near Dayton (OH). Elder Gasper Rowland ordains Joseph Rowland and John Hendricks into the ministry in Kentucky. Migrations from Pennsylvania to Upper Canada (Ontario). Lots of 200 Acres are available, many Brethren Families move to areas near Toronto (Vaughn twp), Kitchener, and near the Niagara River. Mennonites and River Brethren also migrate to these same areas. Eli Whitney develops the concept of mass production and interchangeable parts, a basis of the Industrial Revolution. 1801 Olive Branch Church (Clermont County, OH) Abraham Houser, Stephen Bollender, ministers -colony from Penns Valley, Northumberland County, PA (now Centre Co). It is called the Year of the Squirrels. They are said to have destroyed everything they saw. There was a very heavy crop of mast. Mast is the nut of the beech tree, one of the most common forest trees of the terminal forest. The result was large numbers of turkeys, so many they were a nuisance. Also, mast is a favorite food of the hogs that ran wild in the forest. They were good and fat this year. 1802 Olive Branch Church (Clark County, IN), Jacob Stutzman, minister Daniel Fiant, son of Martin, married Salome Gaby, youngest daughter of Elder Martin Gaby, of the Oley Church. They came to the Whitewater River, Indiana Territory. Daniel was a squatter. 1803 Alexander Mack Jr. dies, Germantown PA. George Wolfe Jr and Abram Hunsaker move to Union County, IL On a national level, this as the year President Thomas Jefferson made the controversial Louisiana Purchase. This delighted many on the frontier, since it gave recognition to our westward expansion as a nation. To the common man on the frontier, it meant that the government was going to look out for him, he wasn't left hanging on his own, as had happened to so many in Kentucky and the Ohio lands in earlier days. There were Brethren already in Louisiana. Ohio became a state. The Kanawha Trace reaches Leesburg OH --comes from NC/Valley of VA through mountains of WV, to the Falls of the New River, and down the Kanawha River -it is a major migration route to Ohio. 1804 Thomas Jefferson was running for his second term in office. The Democrat-Republicans ran George Clinton as his Vice President. The Federalists ran Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina against him again. There was no contest and Thomas Jefferson won. Annual Meeting speaks on a simple code of dress (first time). 1805 David Horn arrives at Jonathan Creek (Perry County, OH). White Water Church (Cape Girardeau MO) James Hendricks, minister. Miami Church (Montgomery County, OH) Jacob Miller, elder (becomes Lower Miami). Beaver Creek Church (Green County, OH) Jacob Sigler, elder Donnel's Creek Church (Clark County, OH) John Garber, elder Nimishillen Congregation (Stark County, OH) John Gans, elder Indiana Territory (the Gore) was opened up for settlement. The Land Office was in Cincinnati, so all purchases had to be made there. Battle of Trafalgar, Lord Horatio Nelson destroyed the French Fleet. The British issued the Orders in Council, which forbade American Trade with any country in Europe. Again there was fierce rhetoric against oppression -and harassment of any who did not agree: including the Brethren. 1806 Kanawha Trace reaches Twin Creek, Four Mile Creek and Richmond IN. Twin Creek Church (Preble County, OH) Peter Eikenberry, John Hart, ministers. A trail was run due west from Dayton to the state line (extended it goes to Boston), it angled across Union Co. to the river crossing town of Brownsville, and from there to Conner's Trading Post, Connersville. It seems to be the road Elder Jacob Miller took, going to see his children. It connects the Traces at Dayton, to the Indian Road to Northern and Northwest Indiana (Michigan Territory) and into Illinois. The Lewis and Clark expedition returns from crossing the continent in the new Louisiana Purchase. Their reports of the great west, plains, mountains, to the Pacific Ocean swept the nation and impacted the frontier. 1807 The harvested wheat had some kind of fungus or bacteria on it, even when made into bread and baked, it made people sick. The whiskey stills found that they had no problem with it. Robert Fulton runs the "Clermont" (steamboat) from New York, up the Hudson River to Albany. 1808 Presidential Election year: The Democrat-Republicans put up James Madison of Virginia. They were split between several candidates for Vice President. The Federalists put up Charles Cotesworth Pinckney again with Rufus King of New York as Vice President candidate. James Madison won as President and George Clinton of New York won as Vice President. Clinton died in office just before the end of this term. George Wolfe Jr, Jacob Wolfe and Adam Hunsaker move to Union County IL, from Kentucky. 1809 Four Mile Church (Union County, IN) John Moyer, Daniel Miller, ministers. Rush Creek Church (Hocking County, OH). George Wolfe Sr dies at Kaskaskia IL. The Beech Mast failed, hogs in the wild were thin and the squirrels raided the corn. As this food source for the wild was lost, the crops of the settlers suffered. The Government made a land purchase from several Indian chiefs, called the 12 Mile Purchase. Essentially, the Government obtained for settlement land west of the Gore, on a line parallel to the Greenville Treaty Line, but twelve miles west of it. Many Indians, including Tecumseh, protested loudly that those who sold the land did not have right to it. 1810 Hordes of mice. 1810-1814 War of 1812, Indian Threat from Muncytown. There were no local incidents, unless a couple lost horses were actual Indian thefts. The Indian fear swept every where. Several people "escaped" transient Indian "War"parties, but they were so good that the Indians had not gotten close to them. It is reported that some even carried guns coming to Dunker church services at Four Mile. 1811 Knob Creek Church (Washington County, TN) mother church of Brethren in Tennessee. Bear Creek Church (Montgomery County, OH) David Bowman, Elder; from the division of the Lower Miami Church. Lower Stillwater Church (Montgomery County, OH) John Burkett, elder. Wolf Creek Church (Montgomery County, OH) Daniel Cripe, elder William Henry Harrison defeats the Prophet at Prophets Town on the Tippecanoe River in western Indiana. This broke Tecumsah's Indian league. The Prophet (his brother) had promised the Indians complete protection from the bullets of the white man...It didn't happen! Governor William Henry Harrison review the local militia at the village of Boston, just north of the Four Mile settlement. It must have been a gala festivity, with the Territorial Governor present, probably everyone who could would be present. It is noted that even Indians were there to observe the review of the militia. This all probably brought severe conscience surveying by the Dunkers. They were pacifists, they had suffered much from the militia in the past, because they refused the drill, and the drinking, cursing and carousing that normally were present with it, and because they refused to agree to popular causes, frequently being caught between two belligerent sides and suffering because of it. The militia review was decidedly militaristic, war with Great Britain was imminent, possibly already declared. The 12 Mile Purchase was surveyed and opened for sale. The Brethren were already across it -in the Nettle Creek, following the Indian Road to Muncytown. First Steamboat "New Orleans" on Ohio River launched at Pittsburg. It arrived on the Mississippi in time to experience the New Madrid Earthquake. On December 16th, at about 2 AM, the ground shook, and continued shaking for two days (estimated 8.6 on the Richter Scale). 1812 (continued) On January 23, it shook again, severely (8.2 Richter). On the 27th, early in the morning, it shook constantly for one whole minute. Finally, on February 7, at 4 AM, there were 2 extreme shocks, the second the most severe of all (8.7 Richter). It was reported that trees in the forest even fell, and these were trees that had not fallen in the great wind of 1807. (This was the New Madrid Earthquake. It changed the course of the Mississippi River, leaving the Oxbow lakes in western Tennessee. The river is reported to have flowed upstream for 2 hrs because of the earth quake). The shaking continued intermittently for 2 years. A great religious revival resulted. James Madison was reelected President with Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts as Vice President. President Madison's War -"War Hawk" attacks on Canada are defeated. British burn Washington, Fort McHenry Bombarded -"Star Spangled Banner." War in the West was directed at the British Forts at Detroit and westward: forts they had neglected to abandon following the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Revolution, forts that belong rightfully to this new country. Even Canada was declared subject to their hostile rule, in need of assistance toward freedom. George Wolfe Jr and neighbors request baptism, from Elder John Hendricks, form a church (Union County, IL) John Tanner, minister, left New Madrid, moved to White Water Church, Cape Girardeau, MO. 1813 Brush Creek Church (Darke County, OH) Philip Younce, elder Elder John Hendricks (Kentucky) dies. George Wolfe Jr ordained to ministry by Elder Adam Hostetler of Shelby County, KY. With them is young Peter Hahn. 1814 Muhlenberg County Church (KY) Joseph Rowland Grayson County Church (KY) Joseph Rowland. 1815 The Battle of New Orleans, generaled by Andrew Jackson, saved the west -to the settlers who lived here. Its import swept the frontier and raised "Andy" to popular adulation. The War was over, "We Won!" There were hard times following the War of 1812. Many lost their properties. As a result, there was a new influx to the Ohio Valley over several years. Mill Creek Church (Mahoning County, OH) George Hoke, minister; Here is where Henry Kurtz lived, was Elder, and published the Gospel Visitor. Annual Meeting declares against Brethren participation in the Frontier Revival -and various practices of the Revival. 1816 Presidential Election year: The Democrat-Republicans nominated James Monroe of Virginia, with Daniel T. Tompkins of New York as Vice President. The Federalists nominated Rufus King of New York for the Presidency, but were split over Vice Presidential candidates, then they lost the election. Indiana obtained its statehood. Benjamin Harrison was elected governor. Elder Jacob Miller died. Barbara Miller, his widow, came to the Four Mile, to the home of Philip Lybrook (son-in-law/ ?brother). The Year that had No Summer! This was a very bad year, everywhere, but especially on the frontier. A popular expression was: "1816 and froze to death!" It got cold at night all summer and crops would not grow, There was a killing frost at least once during every month. June 5 and 6, the temperature dropped to below 40, then on the 7th it snowed. There were killing frosts all three nights. By June 11th, the corn was withered and dead in the field. It was replanted, then in July the new stand was killed by another killing frost. On August 20, the temperature again plunged and any remaining crops were destroyed. Sept. 27 saw the start of winter with another killing frost. 1817 (continued) WINTER. That winter was one of the worst ever experienced. Snows started early in October, and stayed on the ground until April. The snows were two feet deep with a terrible ice crust on top. Many survived only because the deer were trapped by the snows and ice and could not escape the hunters. Following that winter, deer were so scarce that they could not be depended on as a source for meat, nor was the common deerskin britches and jacket any more available. (The cause is identified as an explosion that destroyed a volcano on the island of Tambora, Java. The resulting dust cloud covered the earth and filtered the light from the sun, and thus the heat that the earth received.) Steamboats were running up the Mississippi, carrying produce. Rapid transportation for the farmer had arrived. Cincinnati became the "Queen City of the West" (River Steamboats were called "Queens") While they mostly displaced the Keelboat ("Mike Fink") with its slow upstream progression, they only supplemented the flatboat in carrying produce "down to Nawr'Leans". Young men drive herds of hogs to Cincinnati, where they are butchered, barrelled, shipped to New Orleans. Salem Church (Montgomery County, OH) Emanuel Flory, elder. 1818 The Cumberland Road reaches the Ohio River at Wheeling (Old Ft Henry) and makes connection to the Zane Trace. It begins at Cumberland MD. This is the antecedent to the National Road a few years later. Suddenly there is a good road to west of the mountains. Treaty of St. Marys (OH). William Henry Harrison at old Girty's Town. Indians cede central Indiana lands to government. (Wabash Country). There had been migration west on the Indian Road through the 12 Mile Purchase Lands (Indiana). The fertile Middle Branch Valley of the Whitewater River lay just beyond the line, and was really too attractive. Dunker settlers spilled over into it - The Nettle Creek Church. Illinois is admitted to the Union, as a free state (no slavery) Kaskaskia is the capitol. one bad harvest followed another in Germany, the Napoleonic Wars had taken their toll and religious disputes within the Lutheran Church had led to disruptions of life. A major immigration came to the Americas, especially from Bayern, Wurtemmberg, and later from Hessen, Thuringen, and Westpreussen. James Hendricks ordained to ministry at White Water Church (MO). 1819 Panic of 1819. Bank loans called in, speculators collapsed in bankruptcy. Florida purchased from Spain. Harmony Church (Monroe County, IN) Adam Kern Sr, minister -part of "Brethren Association." 1820 Nettle Creek Church (Wayne County, IN) David and Aaron Miller, elders. Annual Meeting Committee meets with Brethren leaders of "the Far Western Brethren", at the Muhlenberg County, Church. Delaware Indians move to Missouri. Indiana legislature establishes capitol site at Indianapolis. (Mouth of Fall Creek, crossing of several Indian trails Delaware lands). Illinois Capitol is Vandalia -a hunters ranch, axmen had to open the road to allow passage of the wagon hauling state records. Depression --lasted till 1825. Land prices are dropped to $1.25/acre and the amount of land can be as little as a quarter section (160 Acres). James Monroe was sweepingly reelected to the Presidency. Daniel D Tompkins of New York was reelected as Vice President. It was called the era of good feeling, that swept the nation. Missouri Compromise - Missouri entered Union as slave state, no slave states to be farther north in the new Louisiana Purchase. The Brethren moved to future free states. 1820-1822 Cholera Epidemic, many die. (Epidemic started in Pennsylvania). 1821 Lost River Church (Orange County, IN) Joseph Hostetler, minister -member of "Brethren Association" Questioned by Joseph Hostetler, Annual Meeting accepts the validity of single immersion baptism, as scriptural. William Bechnell opens the Santa Fe Trail, from Independence MO to Sante Fe NM. A famous trade and migration route. Stephen Austin obtains permit to form first Yankee settlement in Texas. Annual Meeting states that "single immersion baptism" is acceptable, but the only true baptism is trine immersion (from Joseph Hostetler, the "Brethren Association" -Frontier Revival). 1822 White River Church (Lawrence County, IN) Abraham Kern, minister -member of "Brethren Association." 1823 "The Monroe Doctrine" -James Monroe; that the United States was no longer an appendage of a European World, but had an "essentially different" destiny. He promised that the United States would not intervene in European Affairs, and Europe must consider the Western Hemisphere closed to any colonization efforts. The United States would be "unfriendly disposed" to any such action. 1824 Presidential Election: This election raised a furor far beyond the frontier, rolling down from the mountains to the sea. The Democratic-Republican legislative caucus nominated William Harris Crawford of Georgia. There was no opposition party, the Federalists had gone - disintegrated. Then Tennessee nominated its favorite son: Andrew Jackson. Others did likewise. Soon the Democratic-Republican Party had 4 candidates. Andrew Jackson received over a third of the Electorial votes, but not a majority. John Quincy Adams received just under a third, and the remaining third was split between Crawford and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Since none received a majority of the Electorial votes, the law cast the contest into the House of Representatives. There, Clay's supporters threw their votes to John Quincy Adams, who then won. Can't you just hear the screams of anguish as word filtered across the frontier? Jacob Huston moves to Portage Prairie in northwestern Indiana (near South Bend). It was so nice not to have to clear off forest trees! This was part of Michigan Territory. Route seems to have been the Quaker road to Ft. Wayne, then through the woods to the St. Joseph River. (Now US 27 to US 33) 1825 Erie Canal was finished from Hudson River to Lake Erie. Cheap, easy transportation of goods and produce could move between the upper midwest and the industrial east. 1826 Miami and Pottawatammi Indians cede upper Wabash Valley, Tippicanoe and Miami River lands to government. Racoon Creek Church (Putnam County, IN) Wm R Smith, elder; settlement from Darke County, OH and Four Mile IN. Long Creek Church (Muhlenberg County, KY) Joseph Rowland, elder Isham Gibson of Rutherford County, TN ordained to the ministry by Elder Joseph Rowland. Annual Meeting puts Minister Joseph Hostetler on the ban. This results in the loss of all the "Brethren Association" churches in Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio; churches that had been directly connected to the Frontier Revival of 1812 and after. Most of these churches eventually became the Disciples of Christ, although they continued to consider themselves as "Dunker Christians". This is due to the differences in various practices between the Frontier Brethren already here, and the more conservative Eastern Brethren, who flood into western Ohio with the accessibility of the National Road. 1827 National Road came into Richmond from east, all the way from Cumberland, MD. It is 80 feet wide, graveled from 30 to 40 feet wide. It had heavy traffic from the first, 100 wagons a day. These were Conestoga Wagons, pulled by 4 to 6 horses or oxen. Shipping charges were $10 a ton. Lighter traffic was with "shake-guts", carts pulled with smaller horses. The Union County, IL church begins to move to a better location in Adams County, IL -over several years the move is complete. 1828 Presidential Election: The supporters of Andrew Jackson rightfully claimed that the procedure that lost him the 1824 election were counter to the intent of the Constitution. The election process was revised and much power was placed in the state legislatures. Here the popular vote became a real power. The Democratic-Republican Party split open and evolved into the Democratic Party with the nomination of Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. The National Republican Party nominated John Quincy Adams with Richard Rush. Andrew Jackson became the next President. He was the western hero, and likely drew rowdy support all over Indiana. Pleasant Hill Church (Macoupin County, IL) Isham Gibson, minister Elder Joseph Rowland and Elder Joseph Dick move from Logan County, Kentucky to Sagamon County, IL. 1829 North Fork Church (Carroll County, IN) John Shively, minister; settlement from Montgomery County, OH. Welland Canal opened -between Lakes Ontario and Erie. 1830 Bachelor Run Church (Carroll County, IN) Peter Replogle, Peter Eyman, ministers; settlement from Four Mile IN and Montgomery County, OH. Elkhart Church (Elkhart County, IN) Daniel Cripe, elder; settlement from Montgomery County, OH. Sugar Creek Church (Sangamon County, IL) Isham Gibson, minister Adam Paine, Bureau County, IL, Brethren Missionary preaches to the Indians. 1831 Portage Prairie Church (St Joseph County, IN) David Miller, elder; settlement from Four Mile and Nettle Creek IN. The Union County, Church (IL) moved en mass to Adams County, IL, the Liberty Church; George Wolfe Jr. Nat Turner Rebellion: Slave revolt in So Carolina, 60 whites were murdered the first night. White Slave owners and families were terrified. Destroyed governmental movements against slavery. This, with the Cotton Gin, brings expansion of Southern Slavery, and fierce Southern protection of their "peculiar institution", even to the floor of Congress. 1831-1832 Asiatic Cholera Epidemic (brought in by English immigrants) Every family lost some! 1832 Presidential Election: Andrew Jackson reelected President, Martin Van Buren as running mate. The Great Fire -destroyed Hamilton Ontario. Very high flooding on the Ohio River. Thomas Miller to Putnam Co. IN (minister -Ladoga Churches). 1833 November 12, spectacular exhibit of shooting stars, filled the sky for several nights. (Began American studies of meteorites, comets, science of astronomy. This was the Leonids, 33 year cycle.) Village of Chicago organized -Samuel Miller and James Miller (bros, from the Four Mile Church IN) are original trustees. Peter Nead publishes: "Primitive Christianity", -an early treatise on Brethren belief and doctrines. Became outstanding Brethren Leader. 1834 Nationally good times, much land speculation. The McCormick Reaper was invented, attracted much attention. Major migration to Michigan Territory (North West Indiana): LaPorte and St Joseph Cos, IN (Portage Prairie), and Berrien Co MI. Annual Meeting (Stark County, OH) rejects Single Immersion Baptism. 1835 Elder Daniel Clingensmith died (Pike County, IL). 1836 President Andrew Jackson issued the Specie Circular. No payments for land in Paper Money, only with Metal Specie. This effectively stopped exchange and use of money on the frontier, except for hard coin. Presidential Election: Democratic Party nominated Martin Van Buren for President and Richard Mentor Johnson of Kentucky as running mate. The Whig Party had four candidates, the most popular one being William Henry Harrison. Martin Van Buren won Texas won its Independence from Mexico. Battle of the Alamo. 1837 Panic of 1837 -due to the Specie Circular by Pres Jackson. It brought bankrupcy to many banks, who had printed paper money far in excess of their cash reserves, and for land speculators, who were playing the margins. For everyone else it was panic, financial chaos and very hard times. Many lost their farms, and moved west (Indiana, Illinois). -lasted till 1845. Samuel Eikenberry family moves to Danville, Iowa Territory. The National Road went west out of Richmond, to cross Indiana, to Vandalia, Capitol of Illinois; and on to St. Louis on the Mississippi. Typhus Epidemic -eastern Pennsylvania. McKenzie's Rebellion, Toronto Ontario -his army marched right through Brethren area, Vaughn Twp. Many Brethren sympathized, had to flee Canada -to Pennsylvania, Indiana. 1838 The "Telegraph" was invented, an instrument to send messages over a wire. Iowa becomes a Territory. Mexico Church (Miami County, IN) William Moss, elder; settlement from Preble County, OH and Four Mile IN. Eel River Church (Wabash County, IN) David Ulrey, minister; settlement from Montgomery County, and Miami County, OH. Manchester Church (Wabash County, IN) Joseph Harter, minister; settlement from Montgomery County, and Miami County, OH. Turkey Creek Church (Elkhart County, IN) John Leatherman, elder. 1839 Joseph Smith founds the city of Nauvoo, on the Mississippi in Northern Illinois, it is a refuge for the persecuted church in Caldwell County, MO, many others come, even from England. Many Brethren are attracted to this new movement. 1840 Presidential Election: Democratic Party renominates Martin Van Buren. Whig Party renominates William Henry Harrison with John Tyler as running mate. Harrison receives almost 4/5ths of the Electorial vote, although the popular vote is much nearer even. "Tippicanoe and Tyler, too." William Henry Harrison was our own man, first governor, etc. 1841 President William Henry Harrison died in office. Took sick from ceremony of Oath of Office. John Tyler becomes first Vice President to succeed to Presidency by death of President. Jesse Toney moves to Fulton Co. IL (date ?) "two wagons, dog under 2nd" claim to fame: "split rails with Abe Lincoln". Mississinewa Church (Delaware County, IN) John Younce, minister; settlement from Darke County, IN. Yellow Fever Epidemic -especially severe in South. 1842 A mechanical device called the "Sewing Machine" was invented. Arnold's Grove Church (Carroll County, IL) Christian Long, minister; Settlement from Franklin County, PA. Northern Illinois was settled from the east, across Indiana. 1843 Oregon Trail, first wagon train leaves Independence MO Thomas and Sarah Major move to Scioto County, OH from Philadelphia 1844 Presidential Election: After 8 tied ballots between Clay and Van Buren, the Democratic Party nominated James K. Polk of Tennessee with George Mifflin of PA as running mate. The Whig Party nominated Henry Clay of Kentucky. Polk received almost 2/3rds of the Electorial vote: A "Dark Horse" candidate, whom people did not know. Libertyville Church (Jefferson County, IA) organized by Elder George Wolfe, Jr. Joseph Smith is murdered, at Carthage IL. 1845 Typhoid Fever Epidemic. Many deaths, especially among children. Ex-President Andrew Jackson died, much mourning. 1846 West Branch Church (Ogle County, IL) settlement from Conococheague, MD. First state Prohibition Law --against alcoholic beverages and drunkenness. Brigham Young moves the Mormon Church to Zion, Salt Lake City, Utah. Jacob Hunsaker family moves to Oregon Territory. 1846-1847 Mexican War -instigated by President Polk; General Zachary Taylor and Gen Winfield Scott invaded Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave the United States: California, New Mexico (included Utah, Arizona and Nevada), and the Rio Grande River as a border for Texas. 1847 John Toney family take Wagon Train to Willamette Valley OR Thomas and Sarah Major move to Highland County, OH, Lexington Church, on the Kanawha Trace. 1847-1848 Flu Epidemic -world wide, sweeps across the country. 1848 Presidential Election: Zachary Taylor ran with Millard Fillmore. Oregon Territory organized. Gold is found at Sutter's Fort (Sacramento CA). 1849 Gold Rush to California. Cholera Epidemic - starts in East, moves across nation Thomas Miller, minister, from Putnam Co. IN to Cedar County MO, on the Sac River. Daniel Leedy, minister, to Jefferson Co. IA. 1850 President Zachary Taylor takes ill and dies in office. Vice President Millard Fillmore succeeds as President. Fugitive Slave Law enacted, the Government is responsible to find and return escaping slaves: Underground Railroad results. Peter Nead publishes: "Nead's Theological Works" -regarded as most satisfactory vindication of Brethren church principles, became a standard work . Annual Meeting states that it is wrong for the Brethren to go against the counsel of the Annual Meeting. Yellow Fever Epidemic -nation wide. 1850-1851 Flu Epidemic -nationwide. Cholera Epidemic -Illinois and west. 1851 Henry Kurtz begins printing of the "Gospel Visitor", in English -Mill Creek Church, Mahoning County, OH. Annual Meeting Committee meets with Far Western Brethren of Northern Illinois. George Wolfe Jr and James Hendricks are convinced of errors in Bible Interpretations about communion. Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" -overwhelming publication, against Black slavery. 1852 Presidential Election: Franklin Pierce elected as President. Ridenour family begins building of the Junction Railroad, becomes Cincinnati, Hamilton and Indianapolis Railroad. Jacob Wigle and families take Wagon Train to Willamette Valley, Oregon Territory. Some of the Oregon Brethren hold the Universalist doctrine. Yellow Fever Epidemic -nationwide -many deaths. 1853 The B&O, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is completed from Baltimore, MD to the Ohio River at Wheeling. 1854 Daniel Leedy, minister, moves to Willamette Valley Church, Oregon Territory. Samuel Eikenberry family move to Plattsmouth, Nebraska Territory; is member of first Nebraska Territorial Assembly, and of the Nebraska Constitutional Convention. Daniel Miller, minister, leads colony from Four Mile, to Monroe Co. Iowa Territory. 1855 Daniel Miller, elder (of Putnam County, IN, uncle) moves to Monroe Co. Iowa Territory. Philip Moss, elder (of Carroll County, IN, cousin) to Butler Co. Iowa Territory. 1856 Presidential Election: James Buchanan, Democrat and former Minister to Britain, was opposed by John Fremont, "the Pathfinder", who led troops to California and Oregon, and was very popular. Buchanan's Vice President, Millard Fillmore, was more popular than Fremont, and the Democrats won. Cottonwood Church (Lyon County, KS). Qantrill's Raid on Lawrence Kansas. Senator Charles Sumner attack on the floor of the Senate by Preston Brooks -Sumner was an abolitionist, Brooks became a Southern Hero. Bro James Quinter joins the staff of the Brethren Visitor. 1857 Panic of 1857. Dred Scott Decision: Federal Court denies rights of freedom to a slave, who had lived in Illinois, a Free state (slavery was forbidden in the northern states), because he returned to his home in Missouri, a slave state. 1857-1859 Flu Epidemic -one of worst ever - many died. 1858-1860 Typhoid Epidemic. 1858 Lincoln - Douglass Debates. Church of the Brethren in California (Stockton) George Wolfe Jr, minister. Washington Creek Church (Douglas County, KS). 1859 John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry. Wolf River Church (KS). The Far Western Brethren (Illinois) are accepted in full union with Annual Meeting -the action is actually a compromise of the methods of practice in certain of the sacraments. 1860 Presidential Election: Abraham Lincoln of Illinois defeats Stephen A Douglass (the Little Giant), over the issue of Slavery and States Rights. Civil War begins. Pony Express mail service started with California. 1860-1861 Small Pox Epidemic -Pennsylvania. 1863 Minister, Thomas Miller, Cedar County, MO, was fatally shot in an attempt to escape to Kansas. He died in Fort Scott KS. Elder Abraham Rothrock, Lawrence KS, was shot and left for dead, but revived and recovered. (Bleeding Kansas). 1864 Elder John Kline, murdered, after return to Virginia from Annual Meeting at Nettle Creek Church, Hagerstown IN, where he was Presiding Elder. 1865 Elder George Wolfe, Jr. died (IL).